A note on ASA 4th edition:
The American Sociological Association Style Guide serves as the authoritative reference for writing, submitting, editing, and copy editing manuscripts for ASA journals. The ASA Style Guide also serves a wider community of writers who prepare papers in sociological and other social science venues (xi).
Using In-text Citations:
If the author’s name is used in the text, put the date in parentheses:
EX: When Duncan (1959) studied…
If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and publication year in parentheses:
EX: When these relationships were studied (Gouldner 1963)…
Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number
EX: … Kuhn (1970:71).
Note: This is the preferred ASA style. Older forms of text citations are not acceptable: (Kuhn 1970, p.71).
Give both names for joint authors:
EX: … (Martin and Bailey 1988).
If a work has three authors, cite all three last names in the first citation in the text; thereafter, use et al. in the citation. If a work has more than three authors, use et al. in the first citation and in all subsequent citations:
EX: First citation for a work with three authors:… had been lost (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962).
Later… (Carr et al. 1962).
If a work cited was reprinted from a version published earlier, list the earliest publication date in brackets, followed by the publication date of the recent version used:
EX: … Veblen ( 1979) stated that…
Separate a series of references with semicolons. List the series in alphabetical or date order, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.
EX: … (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989).
For summarizing or paraphrasing, author and date of publication for the source must be included in some form. Include page numbers within the citation when directly quoting the authors’ words or paraphrasing a passage.
For citation conventions that are unspecified in the ASA Style Guide (4th ed.), default to The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.).
Information compiled from the American Sociological Association manual of style, 4th ed.
Entries on Reference Page
A note about titles: Only the first word of the title, proper nouns, new sentences, and a word after a colon (:) are capitalized except in titles of periodicals.
Author1 (last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3. Year of publication. Name of publication (italicized). Location of publisher, state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name.
Bursik, Robert J., Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington Books.
Author1 (last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3. Year of publication. “Title of Article.” Name of Publication (italicized) Volume Number(Issue Number):page numbers of article.
Aseltine, Robert H., Jr and Ronald C. Kessler. 1993. “Marital disruption and depression in a community sample.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 34(3):237-51.
Chapters in Books or Other Collected Works:
Author1 (last name inverted), Author2 (including full surname, last name is not inverted), and Author3. Year of publication. “Title of article.” Pp. (with page numbers, elided) in Name of publication (italicized) edited by Editor1, Editor2, and Editor3 (editors’ initials only for first/middle names, names not inverted). Location of publisher, state, or province postal code (or name of country if a foreign publisher): Publisher’s Name.
McAdam, Doug, and Kelly Moore. 1989. “The politics of black insurgency, 1930-1975.” Pp. 255-85 in Violence in America. Vol. 2, Protest, rebellion, reform, edited by T. R. Gurr. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publication.
Articles from E-Resources:
Articles and books obtained from the Internet follow the same pattern as those cited above, with the exception that page numbers are omitted and the URL and date of access are included.
List all references in alphabetical order by first authors’ last names.
Include first names and surnames for all authors. Use first-name initials only if an author used initials in the original publication. In these cases, add a space between the initials, as in R. B. Brown and M. L. B. Smith.
Do not use the ampersand (&) for and in joining names.
For multiple authorship, invert only the first author’s name (Jones, James, B. Colin D. Smith, and James Peterson). List all authors. Using et al. in the reference section is not acceptable unless a work was authored by a committee. Do not place a comma between two names, but place commas between three or more names.
For repeated authors or editors, give the author’s (or editor’s) full name in all subsequent references. (Note: This is a change in the fourth edition.) Arrange references for the same single author from the earliest to the latest. All single-author referenced precede references with multiple authors, even though they may have been published earlier. References with multiple authors are arranged in alphabetical order of authors’ last names as in the examples on p. 50 of the ASA Style Guide.
Distinguish works by the same author(s) in the same year by adding letters (1982a, 1982b, 1982c). List such works in alphabetical order by title. Edited works by the same author are listed with original works.
If no date is available, use N.d. in place of the date. Information compiled from the American Sociological Association manual of style, 4th ed.